This blog is mainly aimed at Ophthalmologists and Patients. The purpose is to educate each other about latest research and surgical techniques. If you wish to write a guest blog, please drop me a line.

Age Related Macular Degeneration

What is age related macular degeneration? Age related macular degeneration(ARMD) is a disease of the central part of the retina called macula. Macula provides central sharp vision for reading and facial recognition. Therefore, ARMD causes blurred or distorted central vision. The side vision remains unaffected. In the early stages of the disease there are often no […]

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO)

What is Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO)? Following uncomplicated cataract surgery, new IOLs are placed on a thin surface called posterior capsule. In some patients this posterior capsule becomes thick, and opaque. This is called Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO).   What are the symptoms of PCO? Usually the vision is decreased, particularly while reading. Some patients [...]

Stye and Chalazion

Stye is a lump on eyelid margin formed when debris from blepharitis block the base of the eyelashes. What is the difference between chalazion and stye? Stye and chalazion are eyelid bumps that may occur at any age. Chalazion is noticed as a bump on the eyelid. It is painless. Stye is painful and mostly […]

Posterior Vitreous Detachment

What is a posterior vitreous separation? The back of the eye is filled with a clear jelly called Vitreous. It is normally firmly attached to the lining of the eye (retina). Over time, the vitreous shrinks and pulls away from the retina, which may float in the middle of the eye. This is called a […]

Corona Virus- Information for Patients

You may find it challenging to schedule face-to-face appointments with your eye care provider during the coronavirus pandemic. Here’s how to stay healthy and protect your eyes while hunkering down at home. Patient Information Coronavirus Eye Safety Eye care procedures may be delayed during the pandemic, so eye safety is more important than ever. Download […]

Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD)

  What is a posterior vitreous detachment? The back of the eye is filled with a clear jelly called Vitreous. It is normally firmly attached to the lining of the eye (retina). Over time, the vitreous shrinks and pulls away from the retina, which may float in the middle of the eye. This is called […]

Epi-Retinal Membrane (ERM)

  What is Epi-Retinal Membrane? Epi-Retinal Membrane (ERM) is a scar tissue that grows on the macula (the central portion of the retina). Macula is responsible for central sharp vision, that helps in reading and recognizing faces. What are the symptoms? An epiretinal membrane will not cause complete blindness. It will generally affect the central […]

Macular Hole

Macular hole is a full thickness gap in the centre of the most central part of the eye called fovea. It usually presents with reduced vision or central distortion. Risk factors include old age, trauma, use of Tamoxifen and female gender. There are 4 stages of macular hole. The most useful test to detect macular […]

Coat’s Disease

What is Coat’s disease? Coat’s disease is an eye disorder characterised by abnormal development of blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels leak fluid, causing lipid (yellow) accumulation within the macula (the central most part of the eye). Due to leaking blood vessels, the fluid accumulates under the retina, causing retinal detachment, resulting in […]


What is the retina? Imagine that your eye is like a camera, and the retina is the photographic film. The retina is a fine sheet of nerve tissue lining the inside of the eye (see diagram). Rays of light enter the eye and are focused onto the retina by the lens. The retina produces a […]

How to Prevent Cataract Formation

As people grow older, many people develop cataracts which require, a simple, but an operation nonetheless. The surgery involves removing the opaque cataract and replacing it with a plastic intra-ocular lens. Many middle aged patients ask if there is something they can do to prevent or delay cataract formation. In my opinion, the following things […]

The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System

In a healthy eye, the photoreceptors (rods and cones) in the retina convert light into tiny electrochemical impulses that are sent through the optic nerveand into the brain, where they are decoded into images. If the photoreceptors no longer function correctly—due to conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa—the first step in this process is disrupted, and the visual system cannot [...]


What is blepharitis? Blepharitis is a common inflammatory eye disorder, which affects your eyelid margins and leaves debris on your eyelashes. If left untreated, the debris (germs living on the eyelids) can build up and look like dandruff, crusting at the roots of the lashes, which can cause red sore eyes. Why do I have […]


VIRAL CONJUNCTIVITIS Prior to #Eid holidays I noticed an upsurge of patients presenting with “Red Eyes”. During the holidays, I have been getting phone calls about red/ pink eyes. It seems the #conjunctivitis (آشوب چشم) epidemic is back! What is it? Viral conjunctivitis is the most common cause of an acute red eye. A self-limited infection, […]

Why does our eye twitch?

What is eye twitching? Eye twitching is a repetitive, involuntary muscular contraction. A twitch commonly occurs in the upper lid but at times it can occur in lower lid, or both the upper and the lower lid. Twitches are commonly painfree and harmless. However, sometimes they may be caused by certain neurological conditions called Blepharospasm […]