This blog is mainly aimed at Ophthalmologists and Patients. The purpose is to educate each other about latest research and surgical techniques. If you wish to write a guest blog, please drop me a line.


What is the retina? Imagine that your eye is like a camera, and the retina is a photographic film. The retina is a fine sheet of nerve tissue lining the inside of the eye (see diagram). Rays of light enter the eye and are focused onto the retina by the lens. The retina produces a […]


What is presbyopia? We change the shape of our natural lens to see up close and focus on near objects. As we grow older, the lens becomes less and less flexible.  Presbyopia is the gradual loss of the ability to focus on near objects. This age-related deficit in near vision can be confirm by a […]


The uveal tract or uvea is the middle layer of the inside of the eye (red coloured layer in the diagram). When all or part of the uvea becomes inflamed, the condition is called uveitis. Uveitis has many possible causes and may be linked to inflammations elsewhere in the body, but in many people, the cause […]

Instructions after Cataract Surgery

Your cataract surgery was performed yesterday.  Please watch this video carefully and follow the instructions as advised. The eye may be watery for 24  hours and vision a little blurred initially. However, if you have severe pain in the eye, contact the emergency number.     How to Insert Eye Drops Tilt your head back. […]

Cataract Phaco Surgery with TORIC lens

If you have corneal astigmatism (cylindrical number in your glasses),  Toric lenses are an excellent option to reduce your dependency on glasses at distance. If you also wish to be spectacle free for near, know your lens options.  

Cataract Surgery with MONOfocal lens

Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgery in the world.  Most patients have a fantastic outcome. With the standard monofocal lens, the patient will have to wear glasses for near. Some rare complications of cataract surgery include: Infection in the  eye (endophthalmitis) Bleeding in the  eye (suprachoroidal  hemorrhage) Swelling of the eye (corneal edema) Swelling […]


In monovision,  one eye focuses on distance while the other eye focuses on near. Together with both eyes open, the vision is good for near and distance. Some patients feel the vision is not sharp enough for distance or near. But most do not notice the difference. Monovision may be achieved with contact lenses, LASIK surgery […]

Cataract Phaco Surgery Overview

What is a cataract? A cataract is the clouding of the natural lens in your eye. As the cataract develops, light cannot enter the eye easily and your vision gets blurry. Early signs may include frequently changing glasses prescription, difficulty in driving at night or glare in the sunshine. Cataracts are a major cause of […]

Laser for Diabetic Retinopathy

Treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy is with monthly anti-VEGF or retinal laser. Anti-VEGF treatment is repeated every month. Pan Retinal Photocoagulation (PRP) laser is like permanent anti-VEGF. Each yellow dot represents a laser spot. Multiple laser spots are needed all around to treat the proliferative forms of diabetic retinopathy (PDR).          

Diabetic Retinopathy – Advanced

What is proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR)? Diabetic eye disease is the commonest cause of blindness in the working-age group. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the advanced form of Diabetic Retinopathy. PDR develops when abnormal or fragile blood vessels grow on the retina. Risk factors for PDR Poorly controlled diabetes Duration of diabetes Smoking Uncontrolled blood [...]

Diabetic Retinopathy-Mild Disease

Most patients with diabetic retinopathy will develop some form of eye changes secondary to diabetes. The eye changes secondary to diabetes are called diabetic retinopathy. The risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy  are: Poor control of diabetes (measured by HBA1c level) Duration of diabetes (irrespective of control) Smoking High blood pressure Anaemia High cholesterol levels [...]

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)

What is Retinitis Pigmentosa? Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal disease, characterized by progressive night blindness. In RP, photoreceptor cells in the retina, that detect light, are damaged. Retina has two types of photoreceptors; rods and cones. Rod photoreceptors are the primary cells that are affected in retinitis pigmentosa. However, eventually, cone photoreceptors [...]

High Myopia (short-sightedness)

What is myopia? Myopia or short-sightedness is an eye condition that causes distant objects to appear blurry while near objects can be seen clearly.  This occurs if the eye is longer than normal or has a cornea that is too steep. Due to this,  light rays focus in front of the retina instead of on […]

Age Related Macular Degeneration

What is age related macular degeneration? Age related macular degeneration(ARMD) is a disease of the central part of the retina called macula. Macula provides a central sharp vision for reading and facial recognition. Therefore, ARMD causes blurred or distorted central vision. The side vision remains unaffected. In the early stages of the disease, there are often […]

Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO)

What is Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO)? Following uncomplicated cataract surgery, new IOLs are placed on a thin surface called posterior capsule. In some patients this posterior capsule becomes thick, and opaque. This is called Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO).   What are the symptoms of PCO? Usually the vision is decreased, particularly while reading. Some patients [...]

Stye and Chalazion

A stye is a lump on eyelid margin formed when debris from blepharitis block the base of the eyelashes. What is the difference between chalazion and stye? Stye and chalazion are eyelid bumps that may occur at any age. A chalazion is noticed as a bump on the eyelid. It is painless. A stye is […]

Posterior Vitreous Detachment

What is a posterior vitreous separation? The back of the eye is filled with a clear jelly called Vitreous. It is normally firmly attached to the lining of the eye (retina). Over time, the vitreous shrinks and pulls away from the retina, which may float in the middle of the eye. This is called a […]

Corona Virus- Information for Patients

You may find it challenging to schedule face-to-face appointments with your eye care provider during the coronavirus pandemic. Here’s how to stay healthy and protect your eyes while hunkering down at home. Patient Information Coronavirus Eye Safety Eye care procedures may be delayed during the pandemic, so eye safety is more important than ever. Download […]

Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD)

  What is a posterior vitreous detachment? The back of the eye is filled with a clear jelly called Vitreous. It is normally firmly attached to the lining of the eye (retina). Over time, the vitreous shrinks and pulls away from the retina, which may float in the middle of the eye. This is called […]

Epi-Retinal Membrane (ERM)

  What is Epi-Retinal Membrane? Epi-Retinal Membrane (ERM) is a scar tissue that grows on the macula (the central portion of the retina). Macula is responsible for central sharp vision, that helps in reading and recognizing faces. What are the symptoms? An epiretinal membrane will not cause complete blindness. It will generally affect the central […]

Macular Hole

Macular hole is a full thickness gap in the centre of the most central part of the eye called fovea. It usually presents with reduced vision or central distortion. Risk factors include old age, trauma, use of Tamoxifen and female gender. There are 4 stages of macular hole. The most useful test to detect macular […]

Coat’s Disease

What is Coat’s disease? Coat’s disease is an eye disorder characterised by abnormal development of blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels leak fluid, causing lipid (yellow) accumulation within the macula (the central most part of the eye). Due to leaking blood vessels, the fluid accumulates under the retina, causing retinal detachment, resulting in […]

How to Prevent Cataract Formation

As people grow older, many people develop cataracts which require, a simple, but an operation nonetheless. The surgery involves removing the opaque cataract and replacing it with a plastic intra-ocular lens. Many middle aged patients ask if there is something they can do to prevent or delay cataract formation. In my opinion, the following things […]

The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System

In a healthy eye, the photoreceptors (rods and cones) in the retina convert light into tiny electrochemical impulses that are sent through the optic nerveand into the brain, where they are decoded into images. If the photoreceptors no longer function correctly—due to conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa—the first step in this process is disrupted, and the visual system cannot [...]


What is blepharitis? Blepharitis is a common inflammatory eye disorder, which affects your eyelid margins and leaves debris on your eyelashes. If left untreated, the debris (germs living on the eyelids) can build up and look like dandruff, crusting at the roots of the lashes, which can cause red sore eyes. Why do I have […]


VIRAL CONJUNCTIVITIS Prior to #Eid holidays I noticed an upsurge of patients presenting with “Red Eyes”. During the holidays, I have been getting phone calls about red/ pink eyes. It seems the #conjunctivitis (آشوب چشم) epidemic is back! What is it? Viral conjunctivitis is the most common cause of an acute red eye. A self-limited infection, […]

Why does our eye twitch?

What is eye twitching? Eye twitching is a repetitive, involuntary muscular contraction. A twitch commonly occurs in the upper lid but at times it can occur in lower lid, or both the upper and the lower lid. Twitches are commonly painfree and harmless. However, sometimes they may be caused by certain neurological conditions called Blepharospasm […]